Thursday, May 21, 2020
During a time where Gnostic ideology was one of the heresies gaining momentum, Tertullian and Irenaeus were two of the individuals that brilliantly defended the faith. They saw Gnosticism through the same lens as many other Church Fathers, as nothing else but a heresy. In their time this was a real threat to the true faith that was laid out for them through the Scriptures and through the oral tradition passed down by the apostles. Like many heresies, Gnosticism started off within a Christian foundation. However, what makes it more interesting is that Gnosticism as philosophy or the ideology as a whole may have predated Christianity since we see some epistles arguing against some of the Gnostic principles (Kelly 23). To further refute the heresy, Irenaeus and Tertullian had a tremendous contribution in the development of Christian apologetics. While similar, many have credited Irenaeus to his ecclesiological development and Tertullian to his Christological development in the early Chu rch. Through the writings of Irenaeus, we quickly learn of how he viewed the Scriptures and the apostles. Irenaeus laid his argument by stating a foundation that every Christian would agree with, which was that Christ himself is the ultimate source of Christian doctrine. While this may seem very intuitive, it is because of this foundation that Irenaeus lays out that he is able to further develop his argument. Irenaeus continues with this argument by stating that Christ has revealed his message
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Use of Disguises in Odyssey The characters use of disguises in Homers Odyssey is a crucial element that helps to catalyze the victory of good over evil. Each disguise is unique, created for a specific purpose. Before she talks to Telemachos, Athena disguises herself as a wise old man in order to ensure that her words carry weight and are taken seriously. She knows that she must assist and encourage Telemachos into searching for his long lost father without revealing her divine nature, so she assumes the guise of Mentor because men were generally given more credibility in those days. In a similar vein, Odysseus disguises himself as a homeless man in order to exude anonymity so that he can safely return to Ithaka where heÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦He is praised by Athena for his ability to quickly devise a false tale. In the Achaian world, intelligence is more highly treasured then a hard working man. Odysseus cleverness makes him godlike and comparable to the immortals, and he even had opportunities to be among the immortals, as exemplified by Kalypsos offer for eternal life and youth. Despite the fact that he is cheating on his wife, an unscrupulous act, Odysseus is still regarded as a great man; glorious and honorable. Contrast to the modern American view of evil, Odysseus blinding of Polyphemus is not an evil act, but rather one that is praised for its cleverness. Odysseus nobody trick has proved to save his life. Although his goal was to survive, Odysseus abandoned his morals of honesty to accomplish the feat. By identifying himself as nobody, he fooled Polyphemus, but he also hid his true identity, which is lying and deceiving. He actually degraded his manhood by disguising himself mentally. Ironically, Odysseus escapes not as a manly warrior, but rather as a sheep. After leaving the cave, he wants to redeem himself and his manhood. Revealing his name to Polyphemus almost cost the crew members their lives, but the fame that Odysseus would obtain from tricking Polyphemus will be everlasting and was worthwhile to him. Showing a lack of good judgement, Odysseus again reveals his position in the water, but luckily, they do escapeShow MoreRelated Use of Disguise in HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s Odyssey Essa y2154 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesUse of Disguise in HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s Odyssey Ã Ã Ã The difference between a wise and a foolish decision is often found in discerning when to conceal and when to reveal. This discretion in concealing and revealing is a major theme within The Odyssey. There is a proper time to deceive and a proper time to tell the truth; thus, it is crucial that one act accordingly. This importance is exemplified in Odysseus life. When he is discreet in his timing, he achieves his goal. One example of this is the TrojanRead MoreEssay about Use of Disguise in Homers Odyssey1056 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Use of Disguise in Odyssey Ã Ã In Homers Odyssey, the use of disguise to help convey a false identity assists the characters in accomplishing their plans.Ã Without the use of disguise it would thwart OdysseyÃ¢â¬â¢s attempts at arriving back to his homeland. Each disguise has its own individual purpose, for example Athenes image as Mentor to advise Telemachos.Ã The main intention being to assist and encourage Telemachos into searching for news of his long lost father without revealingRead MoreO Brother, Where Art Thou?: Modern Adaptation of Homers Odyssey1265 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe epic poem The Odyssey. The Coen brothers, writers and directors of the film, did not over analyze their representation. Ã¢â¬Å"It just sort of occurred to us after weÃ¢â¬â¢d gotten into it somewhat that it was a story about someone going home, and sort of episodic in nature, and it kind of evolved into that,Ã¢â¬ says Joel Coen in Blood Siblings, Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s very loosely and very sort of unseriously based on The OdysseyÃ¢â¬ (Woods 32). O Brother, Where Art Thou? contains ideas from The Odyssey for the sake of modernizationRead More Disguises in Homers Odyssey Essay954 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDisguises in Homers Odyssey Ã Ã Ã Ã In Homers Odyssey, disguises help convey a false identity that assist the characters in accomplishing their plans.Ã Each disguise has its own purpose, such as Athenes image as Mentor to advise Telemachos.Ã Her purpose was to assist and encourage Telemachos into searching news of his long lost father without revealing her true identity of divinity.Ã Being old and wise, and especially male, helps put more power behind the words spoken by Mentor because menRead MoreHomer s Odyssey : Power Of Cunning Over Strength910 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessurroundings in order to craft an overall message or theme as a takeaway for their audience. HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s epic The Odyssey demonstrates this well. While HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s epic depicts Odysseus as a strong and powerful king who has won many wars, it is not his strength that propels him to be able to return to his home. If one were to read between the lines, they would realize that one of HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s major themes in The Odysse y compares the power of cunning over strength. The theme unfolds throughout the narrative whenRead MoreEssay on The Importance of Identity in Homers Odyssey1433 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Importance of Identity in Homers Odyssey Within the epic poem The Odyssey, Homer presents the story of Odysseuss quest to find his home and his identity. According to Homers account, with its origin in oral tradition, the two quests are interchangeable, as a mortal defines himself with his home, his geographic origin, his ancestors, his offspring, etc. But in addition to this Homer illustrates the other aspect of human identity, shaped by the individual and his actions so that he mayRead MoreEssay on The Odyssey Disguise To Find True Identity1225 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Odyssey Disguise To Find True Identity Disguise To Find True Identity The Odyssey is an epic that shapes and defines the roles of many great leaders. These leaders are made up of mortals, alive and dead, and immortals. The trip taken by Odysseus is not only a journey of a war hero back to his homeland, but is a journey in all of the characters lives, which develop a better sense of personal identity and selfhood as the epic goes on. It is the many disguises that each character uses thatRead MoreAn Analysis Of The Odyssey 1251 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMimi Wang Mrs. Kottke Honors 10 English 3/24/16 The Power of Women in The Odyssey Throughout literary history, women are portrayed as mere property or tools of men; however, women can also be shown as people who hold power in HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s The Odyssey. Women hold a significant amount of authoritative power over men in both their lives and mindsets, and this can be seen through Circe s powers that are able to manipulate Odysseus and his men, Penelope s tactics to stall marriage and her caution towardRead MoreMetamorphosis In Homers The Metamorphosis979 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesexperienced in the form of disguises, which can be used to serve many different purposes. (Discussion) This idea of metamorphosis is an important aspect of identity in mythological texts. (Thesis) In the Odyssey, Homer uses metamorphosis on the character Athena to help her fulfill her role as a mentor. OvidÃ¢â¬â¢s The Metamorphoses also uses metamorphosis of the characters Io and Callisto to insure their identity as JupiterÃ¢â¬â¢s mistresses. (Essay Map) First, in HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s The Odyssey, metamorphosis is usedRead MoreArchetypes In Homers The Odyssey1507 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAncient GreeksÃ¢â¬â¢ work consists of monsters, creatures, gods, goddesses, fights, and battles. It shows that Ancient Greeks are very imaginative and creative. Three main archetypes that are used in HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s epic ,The Odyssey, each show a different aspect of Ancient Greek culture. The three archetypes are: the hero archetype, the monster archetypes, and the search for love. The hero archetype shows the Ancient GreeksÃ¢â¬â¢ love for thrill and adventure; Odysseus goes on many thrilling adventures while on
string(50) " the publication of the Wolfenden report in 1957\." Law and Morality Sir John Salmond described the law as Ã¢â¬Ëthe body of principles recognised and applied by the state in the administration of justiceÃ¢â¬â¢. They are a set of rules and boundaries that are established by authorities which must be obeyed, otherwise, a sanction may be given. Morals are beliefs, values and principles that are set by society or part of a society, determining what is right and wrong. We will write a custom essay sample on Law and Morality or any similar topic only for you Order Now Phil Harris stated that they are Ã¢â¬Å"standards of behaviourÃ¢â¬ . Unlike legal rules, compliance with moral rules is voluntary, that are often informally enforced through social or domestic pressure. Law and morals are both normative; they specify what should ideally be done and mark the boundaries between acceptable and unacceptable conduct. However, the ways in which they both do this are different: laws are codes of conduct which a superior power has decided should be compulsory. They are formally enforced by appointed authorities and relate to all members of society. One example is the Ã¢â¬Ësmoking banÃ¢â¬â¢ which was introduced by the Smoke-Free (Premises and Enforcement) Regulations 2007 and more recently the proposed change to the legislation regarding same-sex marriage under the Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Bill, which previously meant that gay marriage was prohibited. Morals can be seen as a set of values which are not enforced by law. They define how one ought to act not how one must act and whilst they are not subject to moral enforcement, they can be informally imposed. There are significant differences between moral rules and legal rules; whereas Laws can be introduced almost immediately by Parliament or the Courts, morals tend not to be backed by legal sanctions and are often reinforced by social pressures; such as family and friends. They can have powerful influences on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour, and develop over many years; often heavily embedded in religious and social history. Compliance with moral rules is voluntary and there are often no formal punishments. Today we live in a diverse society which has meant that as morals have developed: they have become pluralistic and between individuals or social groups opinions on moral codes now vary. Within Christianity, acts such as abortion and euthanasia are strongly opposed, while other religious groups may not deem these as wrong. Similarly, in Hindu and Muslim communities arranged marriages are encouraged whilst in non-religious communities these are disfavoured. Furthermore, legal rules can enforce strict liability, such as the requirement of wearing a seatbelt in a car or not exceeding a speed limit, whereas moral rules cannot- they can only be broken voluntarily. Legal and moral codes can coincide; law can often be seen reinforcing and seeking to uphold our moral values. For example, Lord AtkinsÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Ëneighbour principleÃ¢â¬â¢, which is the basis of the tort of negligence and is thought to have derived from the biblical command to Ã¢â¬Ëlove thy neighbourÃ¢â¬â¢ which is also believed to mean do not harm thy neighbour. However, this can be seen as a major problem as morals will consistently change over time, to reflect a change in attitudes, and the law must attempt to keep up in these situations. An example of this can be seen in R v R (1991), which changed the law, so that rape within marriage became a crime. It was viewed that the wife was legally seen as almost the property of the husband, via the marriage agreement. This was view was morally outdated and wrong, yet the law was very slow in adapting this moral view. Another example of how moral change has led to legal change is the case of Diane Blood. Mrs BloodÃ¢â¬â¢s husband died from meningitis. They had been trying to start a family and she arranged for sperm to be extracted from him. Following his death she attempted to use the sperm to become pregnant, but this was banned under the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act. She won the right to have the insemination carried out abroad. Under UK law their births had to be registered with a blank where their fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s name should have been. This was held to be incompatible with the human right to private and family life and the law has since been changed. With actions like theft and murder, they are classed as Ã¢â¬ËwrongÃ¢â¬â¢ both morally and legally. But for crimes such as parking violations they are not seen as immoral, whilst immoral acts such as adultery are not a criminal offence under UK law. If laws enforce morals, then we are faced with the problem that what one person considers immoral, another might not, making it harder to decide which viewpoint it should sanction. This is established in the case of Gillick, where Mrs Gillick sought a declaration that what she saw as an immoral activity (contraceptive advice and treatment available to girls under the age of consent) was illegal regarding its immorality. There was a conflict, as some saw this as immoral (as it would encourage underage sex) whilst others felt that it was moral (as underage sex would occur anyway, but this would help prevent unwanted pregnancies). This shows that if such conflict can arise between law and morality, then the two cannot be viewed as equal. There are further disputes that the law should respond to the changing moral attitudes on euthanasia; the British Social Attitudes Survey 2007 found that 80% of people are in favour of legalising it and despite this, there has been no further change. There are various theories on what the relationship of law and morals should be. The first theory is natural law, which is based on morality. This states that there is a higher law to which laws must conform and one should disregard an immoral law, unless doing so would lead to social unrest. Another theory is positivism, which holds a more scientific view of the law and states that if legislation has been correctly made it should be obeyed even if it is immoral. The Hart/Devlin Debate followed the publication of the Wolfenden report in 1957. You read "Law and Morality" in category "Essay examples" Lord Devlin was a prominent judge and a supporter of natural law whereas the academic Professor Hart was a positivist. The report recommended the legalisation of prostitution and homosexuality Ã¢â¬Ëshould not intervene in the private lives of citizens or seek to enforce any particular pattern of behaviour further than necessaryÃ¢â¬â¢ to protect others. Hart, who was influenced by the earlier theories of John Stewart Mill, supported the reportÃ¢â¬â¢s approach, stating that legal enforcement of morals was unnecessary as it interferes with individual liberty. He believed that law and morals should be separate and the state should not intervene to restrict the freedom of individuals. Mill stated that one should not have to follow societyÃ¢â¬â¢s morals; they should be free to act as they wish, provided their acts do not harm others and Hart only added to this so that their acts also do not harm themselves. Devlin, on the other hand, was strongly opposed to the report on a natural law approach. He felt that society had a certain moral standard, which the law had a duty to support, as society would disintegrate without a common morality and this morality should be protected by the law. In this debate Devlin stated Ã¢â¬Å"individual liberty could only flourish in a stable society; disintegration of our society through lack of shared morality would, therefore, threaten individual freedomÃ¢â¬ . This highlights his beliefs that law and morality are inseparable and the law should in fact intervene in order to support morality. Jeremy Bentham, a philosopher and jurist, rejected natural law theories as Ã¢â¬Ënonsense upon stiltsÃ¢â¬â¢ and concluded that the validity of law does not depend on whether it is good or bad. Ideally, the law should aim to provide the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people, but even if it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t, it may still be a valid law. He added that what the law is and what it should be are different issues. Contrary to Bentham, Aristotle a 4th century Greek philosopher based his ideas on the laws of nature. He stated that ethics is all about learning to be a Ã¢â¬Ëgood personÃ¢â¬â¢ and you should not do anything wrong unless there is a very good reason to do so. These views have been perceived as a Ã¢â¬Ëbalancing exerciseÃ¢â¬â¢ as it is necessary to determine the correct way to behave by weighing up the benefits against the consequences. The Wolfendon Report supported Professor HartÃ¢â¬â¢s view that law and morality should be separate, however, various cases decided since the report show that judges are imposing their moral views in their judgements, such as in the case of R v Brown and Others, the defendants had willingly consented to sado-masochistic practices. Despite that this act was chosen, they were prosecuted and convictions were upheld based on public policy to defend the morality of society. The law is therefore seen to attempt to uphold what it considers to be public morality, even if some may dispute the correctness of that moral code. This is a contrast to the case of R v Wilson, at her request the defendant branded his initials on his wife with a hot knife. The scars led to him being charged with ABH S47. COA held his conduct amounted to Ã¢â¬Å"tattooingÃ¢â¬ and that it was not in the public interest to impose a criminal sanction, still showing that the public and their moral views still influence our law. The differing approaches in these cases clearly show that judges are letting their own moral values affect their judgements. The courts often find themselves at the centre of hugely difficult moral decisions involving life and death. They are often forced to decide between individual rights and moral codes. Diane Pretty contracted motor neuron disease and was confined to a wheel chair. She required no treatment to keep her alive, but had great difficulty talking, eating and sleeping. She was concerned that her husband would be convicted of a serious criminal offence if he helped to end her life and sought the permission of the court for active euthanasia. The courts reluctantly refused her request. This relates to euthanasia which can be seen as both morally and legally wrong, reinforcing the idea that certain views in ociety share the same moral and legal opinion. On the other hand, only a year later it was decided that Ã¢â¬ËMiss BÃ¢â¬â¢, who was suffering from a terminal illness and receiving medical treatment keeping her alive, had the right to refuse to continue with the treatment. This was allowed as it amounted to passive euthanasia which is legally acceptable. Society considers it wrong to take the lif e of another human being and these two cases reflect this moral viewpoint. In the case of Re A (2000), Siamese twins who had their major organs conjoined were both at risk of dying. However, separation of the twins would have led to the death of one of them. The parents were against the operation and wanted to put the girls fate in the hands of God. The courts however, intervened and decided the operation should go ahead; it was considered a successful operation if one girl survived while her weaker sister died. This follows BenthamÃ¢â¬â¢s views that overall more people would benefit if the operation were to go ahead, although this has caused controversy over which individuals moral code should have applied to the situation. The influence of both Hart and Devlin has continued into more recent cases further fuelling the debate as to whether law should enforce moral values or not. In Shaw v DPP the influence of Devlin was seen in the decision with the court describing the Ã¢â¬Ëfundamental purpose of the law, to conserve not only the safety and order, but also the moral welfare of the state. Ã¢â¬â¢ This was also seen in Knuller v DPP which raised the issue of outraging public decency. Hart has had influence on the infamous Sexual Offences Act 1967 as well as reforms in legislation such as the Obscene Publications Act 1968 and the Divorce Law Reform Act 1969. A substantial body of English law is based on moral rules: there is a close relationship between law and morals, as the law does uphold moral values: the existence of laws that serve to defend basic values, such as laws against murder, rape and fraud prove that the two can work together. They both influence each other to a certain extent with the highly moral Ten Commandments being the basis for the UK legal systems most fundamentally important laws. On the other hand, alcohol or smoking restrictions do not reflect a moral code as they have no negative effect on other people. The extent to which law should be influenced by morality remains topical, as mentioned before with laws regarding same-sex marriage and euthanasia. While it can be argued that a significant section of society has come to adopt the view taken by Professor Hart, there nevertheless remains a widely shared belief that weakening of the moral basis of the law is dangerous. How to cite Law and Morality, Essay examples
Saturday, April 25, 2020
This paper discusses the key issues on how tourism can contribute to the poverty reduction and how the initiatives on poverty reduction can be measured as well as how the indicators can be identified. Conceptual issues have also been discussed to determine current and future challenges facing tourism as a tool in reducing poverty.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Tourism Contribution to Poverty Reduction specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the past, the impact of tourism has been identified based on the growth of Gross National Product and creation of employment. Many analysts have perceived tourism development as positive when there are many tourists arriving in the country, the length of stay for tourist is long, increased occupancy of tourists in hotels and when the expenditure related to tourist is high. However, these measures do not provide ways to establish the impact tourism has on poverty reduction. Most information about tourism focuses on a general development of a country and less developed areas through tourism but ignore how the industry can be used to reduce poverty. Tourism development as a measure of development in economy in a country has been referred using general terms focusing much on growth and modernisation in economy. Economic analysts have always assumed that whenever there is growth in tourism the result is the poor benefiting. While it is true that tourism generates employment for the lower and middle class economic and social classes, it is evident that much benefit of tourism goes to the expatriate companies both locally and internationally as well as local elites. The poor people employed in the industry earn low payments. In addition, if the planning and management in the industry is poor, ecological system depletes uncontrollably, the cost of living goes up for the surrounding community and their cultural traditions are damaged. The officers entrusted with to urism management have failed to demonstrate how tourism can affect poverty alleviations. Much attention has been given to macro economic impacts and the potential tourism industry has to cause economic growth to both the poor and marginalised people as well as the surrounding communities. They have failed to define measures and show demonstrations on specifics regarding how tourism can reduce poverty for the individuals in the community.Advertising Looking for essay on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Regarding community development, the focus is shifting from impact of tourism on overall growth of economy in the society to specific impact on reducing poverty for individuals. Managers in the tourism industry are currently experiencing growing trend in realising that poverty reduction does not always follow economic growth and that poverty can only be reduced through concerted effort and pro poor policies that are specific in improving the living standards of the poor in developing countries. Identification of programs at various levels has been made possible by organisations such as World Health Organisations to reduce poverty through tourism. Such people have been defined as those earning less than $1 per day. When individuals are poor, they are not able to acquire enough basic requirements and the general development as an individual is low. Mostly, they are excluded socially and do not have proper access to basic education, healthcare and social amenities accessible to people who are not poor in the society. Poor people experience relative deprivation and are usually not consulted during decision-making, which make them marginalised. Poor people are usually unskilled and are therefore not competent in the prevailing markets. They are not able to spend and save as they lack capital to expand their small businesses. Whenever the market conditions change, the poor are highly venerab le. Such people leave below the average standards compared with the rest people in the society who are not poor. It is paramount to focus broadly on how tourism can reduce poverty because that would give more emphasis on the nature of poverty, which is multi-faceted. Pro poor tourism (PPT) Policy makers use this term to show distinction between general economic development and development that uplift the living standards of poor individuals in the society. The term is also used to mean interventions, which specifically address poverty alleviation.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Tourism Contribution to Poverty Reduction specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Such measures should go beyond expectations that the poor would receive benefits through the Ã¢â¬Å"trickledownÃ¢â¬ effect. More focus should apply to uplift the standards of the poor individuals in the community. PPT is not a program on its own but a method fo cusing on reducing poverty through tourism policies. Pro-poor tourism Tourism can only reduce poverty by improving the economy through creation of jobs whether temporally or permanent. This can be through establishment of businesses where the local people can sell their goods and services. Pro poor tourism should also provide access to water, infrastructure such as roads for the poor to transport their produce to the market and access their farms as well as improved education and healthcare system. PPT should create capacity and avenues to include the poor in decision-making processes, which would uplift their livelihood and expose them to tourists and enterprises related to tourism. Direct benefits to poor people should be identified without expecting that when the industries and agencies around benefit the local individuals would also benefit indirectly. For instance, when analysing if the local community is accessible to the market, poor individuals should be indentified who have gained benefit and by what extent. Management of tourism should therefore rely on concrete figures and not just on analysts who have specialised on economic development. This would help to give detailed reports on how the industry can reduce poverty for the local people around the tourist destination. When it is not possible to determine the positive impact of tourism using concrete figures, other quantifiable means should be used. Such means help the financing agencies when allocating funds to boost tourism industry as evidence that there are direct benefits of the industry to the local people. Alongside assessing the benefits of tourism, tourism managers must also identify and make comprehensive reports on how tourism affects negatively on the society. For example, initiative to expand a tourism destination or agency may result in a loss of grazing pastures and access to water as well as beaches that the locals may have been using for fishing. These negative consequences of touri sm should also be considered and reported to the relevant agencies for effective accountability.Advertising Looking for essay on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Targeting the poor through tourism The major challenge in using tourism as a tool to reduce poverty is to accrue its benefits to the poor. Managers usually make targeting errors such as poor delivery of tourism benefits to the poor and accruing tourism benefit to the rich in the society. Any target is considered efficient if it is able equally to share the total benefits reaching the targeted group. There are three methods used to determine benefits of tourism industry in reducing poverty. For example, administrative targeting determines eligibility of a specific benefit to a particular individual through data collection and interview method regarding his or her economic status if the individual is interested in participating in the tourism initiatives directed to poverty reduction. However, this type of targeting consumes a lot of time and increases the cost of the project because a lot of paper work and data collection are involved. Therefore, it can discourage participation by th e applicants. The other type of targeting is called self-targeting, which ensures that tourism benefits are structured in a way that only the neediest would access initiatives to participate. Whenever there are sponsorship programs in the community, the sponsors ensure that the return wages are low to ensure that only the poor people will be interested in them as their income is usually lower than the wages they offer, which encourages selective participation. Geographical targeting concentrates on efforts that would uplift development in poor localities assuming that when such areas are developed the poor habitants are likely to benefit. The smaller the areas targeted through the method, the higher the efficiency and accuracy of the method are. Reduction of poverty through tourism can employ all the three methods. For instance, employees working in a hotel industry can benefit from a self or administrative program. However, geographical targeting is the most applicable mechanism to general development efforts directed towards poverty reduction because it focuses on localities with high tourism potential and high levels of poverty. Causes of poverty Knowing the causes of poverty for the locals is important before using tourism as a tool for solving their economic and social needs. There are several primary causes of poverty such as low income, lack of adequate assets for clothing, shelter and food as well as poor access to basic education and healthcare. When assets are not enough, the affected people lack good health facilities and are poorly equipped with skills required in the prevailing markets. They live in poor housing and the physical network connecting them to available markets as well as their homes are poorly maintained. Their borrowing power from the banks is low and cannot therefore expand their businesses or improve their social networks. Another primary cause of poverty is when individuals perceive they are powerless and cannot be heard when they interact with other people in the social institutions. This is caused by sociological conditions that are not fair such as mistreatment, violence and poor protection against violence, the poor being intimidated and poor predictability in their interactions with officials in public institutions. Being vulnerable to shocks and difficulty in coping with them are also primary causes of poverty leading to susceptibility to many health risks and hazards. Whenever the poor fall victims they are not able to recover speedily emotionally, economically and physically. In addition to the causes that are immediate, global causes exist related to national and regional economic development, poor income distribution and unstable governance. People believe that general economic growth always benefits the poor individuals but this is not always true. It is therefore wrong to assume that when the larger society receives impact economically the poor benefit as well. Poverty reduction requires implemen ting measures locally, nationally and globally. Locally, manifestations of poverty are poor healthcare, low levels of literacy, unstable income, few formal employments, individuals being unable to choose desired lifestyles, poor housing because of poor land tenure and poor basic infrastructure. Through tourism, poverty can be reduced, as there would be employment opportunities, which would result in better living standards. This employment can either be in formal or informal sectors. Positive economic impacts of tourism Tourism initiatives generate SME business opportunities, thus creating employment and increased income through better market of goods and services. Tourism also generates direct formal employment through businesses for the poor to benefit. Other forms of benefits reach the members in the community when they charge fees for those who use specific routes that are within the area for tourist destination. When organisations donate in charity works the community benefits from the investments. Positive impacts of tourism, which are not economic Tourism enhances capacity building, quality education and acquisition of skills. Creation of healthcare through tourism results in improved health services, nursing education and high sense of well-being. The poor benefit from the positive impacts of tourism on environment such as accessibility to grazing pastures. Tourism builds stronger socio-cultural status as the community is recognised, which creates pride and boosts their self-confidence. Such improvement can be quantified in concrete terms for purposes of reporting. Livelihood is diversified at homes and this reduces vulnerability for individual members. Negative economic impacts of tourism Tourism demands increased investment to reduce pressure on the existing facilities as well as services. The local people suffer from the high cost of living as the tourism related businesses are not selective and target on the tourists. Negative non-economic impacts of tourism Tourism transforms culture into a commodity to generate monetary gains and impacts negatively on the ways of life and traditions of the local people. The indigenous locals in the area developed for tourist destination are displaced and cases of crime increase. Tourism also leads to uncontrolled population increase in the locality around tourist destination. Tourist related activities might also degrade the natural resources when manmade activities are introduced to make the tourist destination more attractive. Recommendations through policy process The poor individuals should be engaged in the processes of planning to empower them and the locality surrounding the tourist destination. There should be more involvement of the poor in planning regarding tourism and poverty reduction. Private sectors should also collaborate with the community to build a common market where the prices for the commodities are harmonised. Barriers for tourism as a tool for poverty reduction There are inadequate government programs to enable informal sectors in the tourism industry provide services and exploit their potential in poverty reduction in urban areas. In the Asian context, the potential of tourism agencies is not well recognised and therefore working with these agencies to alleviate poverty becomes difficult. Such agencies help in addressing issues about women trafficking, gender, poor infrastructure and improvement on healthcare. The poor individuals do not have access to credit facilities, which would enhance their participation in touristÃ¢â¬â¢s economic activities. There is little organisational capacity for the government and non-governmental agencies required adequately to respond to development opportunities in the industry. There is also poor access to tourism assets by the poor individuals in the society. It has been difficult to create innovative services and programs because some of the regulations in place are outdated and there is a red tape before policies are implemented. Once these challenges are overcome through involving all the stakeholders and development policies, tourism will be an effective tool for reducing poverty at individual level. 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Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Design For Manufacturer Example Design For Manufacturer Ã¢â¬â Coursework Example First Sur Process of Manufacturing of Acrylic Signage Acrylic signage refers to a group of artificial plastic signsthat contain derivatives of acrylic acid molded into various commercial and public signs. Acrylic signage is manufactured by reacting a monomer such as methyl methacrylate in the presence of a catalyst. In this process, the suitable catalysts would be an organic peroxide.1 Various acrylic signs are then molded out of the acrylic mass to form signs used for public or commercial purposes. Discussion of Advantages and Disadvantages of the Manufacturing MethodManufacturers usually use bulk polymerization in the process of producing acrylic sheets. The method proves to be the best among others due to its effectiveness. It involves the introduction of the catalyst and the monomer into a mold where the reaction takes place. In this circumstance, two methods may be used; continuous and batch cell. Batch cell is commonly used as it is simple and easily adapted for production. The batch cell technique may also be used to produce tubes and cones. However, the common batch method is costly as it involves extensive loss of material. Additionally, the labor cost is relatively high as there is heavy manpower engaged in introducing the raw materials and in offloading the finished product after the processing of each batch. It is time consuming as much time is spent on-loading raw materials and off-loading finished products. Additionally, it also requires highly skilled labor and highly proficient equipment design and maintenance services. Manufacturers also use the continuous method in the production of acrylic. The continuous process also bears advantages and disadvantages. It has the benefit of utilizing minimal labor. The production cost per unit is relatively lower. There is minimal loss of material in the course of production. The duration of production is lesser than the duration of production in the batch process. The production process requires less-skill ed manpower as compared to the batch process. Use of Acrylic in Signage Manufacturers find acrylic to be one of the best material for manufacturing signs. Acrylic are very versatile plastic sheets that have a glossy finish known as Plexiglas. Acrylic is appropriate for making highly sophisticated signs with high-tech looks.2 Additionally, acrylic is best for use because it is highly durable. It is also available in varied colors. Besides, manufacturers are able to increase the visual effectiveness of acrylic signs and make use of its many ways of displaying it. Therefore, as the best material for use in the manufacture of signage, it has a wide range of usage from purchase signs and the illuminated signs, architectural signs and trade show signs. ReferencesDorman, E, & C Cavette, How acrylic plastic is made - material, making, used, processing, parts, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of acrylic plastic, Quality Control. inMadehow.com, 2015, [accessed 19 February 2015].FASTSI GNS, Acrylic Signs. inÃ Fastsigns.com, , 2015, [accessed 23 February 2015].
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Bust, Burst, and Arrest Bust, Burst, and Arrest Bust, Burst, and Arrest By Maeve Maddox Yes, I know that just about everyone uses the word bust as a noun to mean arrest and as a verb to mean arrested. Phoenix police discuss soured drug bust that killed Chandler officer Ã¢â¬ ¦a Merrill Lynch bankerÃ¢â¬ ¦ was busted along with seven others yesterday for participating in an illegal gameÃ¢â¬ ¦ I know too that its common to use the word bust to mean burst or break. Hurricanes roaring across the Gulf of Mexico create strong enough underwater waves to dig up and potentially bust open oil pipelines Innovative Sound Device Could Bust Cancer Cells Holiday price stings could bust the family budget. Commonly used or not, these uses always register as nonstandard with me. Colloquial, yes. Appropriate in some idioms, yes. Acceptable in a formal context, no. The verb burst means to break suddenly when in a state of tension. Balloons burst. Bubbles burst. Burst means to break the outer covering and discharge the matter. Boils burst. Burst means to open out, to disperse. Flowers burst into bloom. Seed pods burst. We get wet from a sudden cloud burst. And, of course, undersea oil pipes burst. Undersea wells break or break down. Used informally, the word bust is acceptable in certain idioms: to bust a bronco (break a horse) to go bust (to lose ones money at gambling) boom or bust (economic prosperity or failure) drug bust (drug arrest, raid) to bust (to arrest, or to be discovered in an illegal or disobedient act) This deliberately playful headline about the discovery of a publicity hoax plays on two colloquial meanings of bust as a verb, burst and found out as culpable: Balloon Boy Busted In standard usage, bust is a noun with such meanings as A piece of sculpture representing the head, shoulders, and breast of a person. The upper front part of the human body; the bosom (esp. of a woman). The measurement around a womans body at the level of her bust, usually measured in inches My inability to accept bust as an unexceptionable synonym for break or arrest may be totally irrational. Nevertheless, whenever I hear it from the mouth of a news announcer, or see it used in the context of a formal news story, it strikes me as nonstandard and unnecessarily jarring. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Misused Words category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:50 Redundant Phrases to AvoidTelling a Good Poem from a Bad OnePersonification vs. Anthropomorphism
Friday, February 14, 2020
Arguments for and against the Legitimacy of 2003 Invasion of Iraq - Literature review Example Right through its history, America has not hesitated to use force under the pretexts of principles, sovereignty, and justice.Ã American military intervention in world affairs has risen drastically since the end of the Second World War.Ã The period following the Second World War saw America assume the role of a superpower that headed the western coalition in what was a bipolar world.Ã Since the collapse of Soviet Union, America has had at its disposal the most potent military force.Ã Its economic structure complements military spending; leading to a military industrial complex. Noted political commentator Ivo Daalder raises some valid questions regarding the legitimacy of the invasion.Ã Daalder argues that the invasion was illegitimate on two counts: 1.there was no provocation from Iraq and 2.the United Nations Security Council did not approve of the war.Ã Military actions of countries such as Iran and North Korea were condemned by the U.N. and the United States alike.Ã If the same standards were to be applied to all participant countries then the United States deserves its condemnation. On the other hand, supporters of the Bush Administration argue that toppling Saddam Hussein was a just act that needs no further legitimacyÃ'Å½Ã Liberating the country from an oppressive dictatorship is deemed a just act in and of itself.Ã Apart from the geopolitical significance of Bush AdministrationÃ¢â¬â¢s militarism, the image of the country is also at stake.Ã Popular opinion in the rest of the world is very unfavorable towards Americans Ã¢â¬â they donÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to make a distinction between the government and its populace.Ã According to Robert Kagan, Ã¢â¬Å"To forge a renewed political consensus on the use of force, we first need to recognize that international legitimacy does matter. It matters to Americans, who want to believe they are acting justly and are troubled if others accuse them of selfish, immoral or otherwise illegitimate behavior. It matters to our democratic friends and allies, whose support may attest to the justness of the cause and whose participation may often be necessary to turn a military victory into a lasting political success.Ã¢â¬